The Physiological Effects on Hormones Levels and Kidneys Functions Induced by the Anabolic Androgenic Drug (Sustanon) in Male Guinea Pig (Report) by American Journal of Applied Sciences

The Physiological Effects on Hormones Levels and Kidneys Functions Induced by the Anabolic Androgenic Drug (Sustanon) in Male Guinea Pig (Report)

By American Journal of Applied Sciences

  • Release Date: 2009-06-01
  • Category: Engineering

Brief Description

INTRODUCTION Abusing anabolic androgenic drugs by athletes is a serious negative phenomenon which is documented by a number of investigators in many countries around the world including: USA. Canada, UK. Australia and in some Arab countries as well (1-5). Unfortunately, many athletes, specially in the power sports like bodybuilding and weight lifting, administrate illegally high doses of these drugs to obtain huge increasing in the muscles mass and also to improve their performance during the international sport competitions (2), (6), (7). Actually, these anabolic androgenic drugs such as Sustanon, Metandienone, Stanozolo and Deca-Durabolin are useful medical drugs which possess multiple clinical therapeutic benefits (3), (8). For example, Sustanon is one of these anabolic androgenic drugs and it is clinically used to treat many cases of osteoporosis, male hypogonadism and infertility, absence of male libido and it also used as supportive therapy in treating dwarfism cases in children (9), (10). In fact, Sustanon is characterized by a very unique pharmacological structure and properties comparing to the other anabolic drugs. Sustanon consists of four different testosterone ester compounds which provide a continuous release of testosterone into the blood producing a stable testosterone level in the blood serum for long duration extending to 3-4 weeks (9). This distinguish properties increases the anabolic effectiveness duration of Sustanon (10-12). Hence, Sustanon is described as a long acting anabolic androgenic drug (13). This long acting effects of Sustanon justifies why it is more attractive to be abused by athletes (2), (12). Regardless of these unique pharmacological structure and properties of Sustanon, only few studied attempted to investigate the adverse effects induced by Sustanon abuse, whereas other anabolic androgenic drugs such as Deca-Durabolin have been excessively studied by a number of investigators (14), (15). However, regarding the existence of this negative phenomenon in our Arab countries, the recent field study of Tahtamouni (5) in Jordan is believed to be one of the best studies which provided a strong evidences about the existence and the spread of this phenomenon in our Arab countries. Tahtamouni study (5) was carried out on random samples of collages students and athletes in Amman city in Jordan. According to this study it was found that the percentage of the anabolic drugs abusers among the students was 4.2%, whereas the percentage of the abusers among the athletes was found 26%. In addition, it was found that most of the abusers were used to administrate these drugs for long periods. The study also found the ages of the abusers between 19-28 years old. Moreover, it is believed that one of the main factors responsible for the continuation of this abuse problem among the athletes and the youth is the absence of the official restrictions on pharmacies selling these anabolic drugs in many countries around the world (7), (4). For example, during our present study we did not face any restrictions or difficulties in obtaining Sustanon from the pharmacies in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia without any prescriptions. Overall, in regard the adverse effects caused by abusing these anabolic androgenic drugs, number of previous studies reported some of these effects including: cardiovascular disorders (particularly enlargement of the left ventricle) which can lead to sudden cardiac death, acute hepatitis and Jaundice, testicular dysfunction, infertility, hypertension, behavioral disorders in the form of sexual overstimulation and abnormal increase in the aggressive behavior (3), (9), (16-20). However, by reviewing the literature of Sustanon abuse in particular, it was noticed that only very few studies have investigated the hormonal and nephritic adverse effects induced by such abuse among athletes (15), (21). The study of Modlinski and Fields (22) provided an explanation of the absence of sufficient information about some

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